The finding is a rare instance of quantum phenomena emerging on the macroscopic scale, and is even more unusual because it is only the second time—the first being superconductivity—that macroscopic quantum phenomena have been observed in a system that is based on fermions, which include protons, electrons, and all other matter particles. Other systems exhibiting macroscopic quantum phenomena have been based on photons, a type of boson, which mediate the forces between matter.
Thus far, SSD manufacturers have delivered better performance by offering faster data standards, more bandwidth, and more channels per controller — plus the use of SLC caches we mentioned earlier. Nonetheless, in the long run, it’s assumed that NAND will be replaced by something else.
What that something else will look like is still open for debate. Both magnetic RAM andphase change memory have presented themselves as candidates, though both technologies are still in early stages and must overcome significant challenges to actually compete as a replacement to NAND.
There are countries in Europe with a bad reputation, there are those with a very bad reputation and then there is Romania. It’s a country with anti-corruption department heads forced to step down amid accusations of corruption, and a prime minister who stands accused of money laundering. It ranks lowest for toothpaste consumption in the European Union, and high for alcohol consumption. Our man knows all about these things, because he is well traveled in Europe. In political-speak, one could say that he is always on the go, driving the deepening of the European Union.
In 1992, Romania still had 23 million inhabitants. Today there are 4 million fewer. Those who emigrated profit from the fact that Europe has an undeclared division of labor that goes something like this: Wherever uneducated, rather than educated, workers are needed, employers look for Romanians. Even the Germans.
It’s untrue that technology until now has replaced only our muscles; there has always been innovation that replaced our brains. Think of Grecian auditoria that allowed the voice of one speaker to reach many more people than could be reached before such structures were devised. (The microphone, radio, television, the Internet, etc., have, of course, only amplified this effect.) Think of the telegraph and the telephone, each of which allowed people to share knowledge and information across great distances at low cost and, hence, reduced the need for people to keep handy, either in their own brains or in the brains of people within earshot, certain kinds of information and knowledge. Likewise – and even more so and more obviously – think of the printing press, which enabled knowledge to be stored inexpensively with paper and ink rather than requiring that that knowledge be toted around in human brains.
Think of the abacus; think of printed multiplication tables; think of the calculus (which is a clear net-saver of brain power). Think of the cash register. Think of money itself, which eliminates the need to learn of the precise identities and locations of trading partners who both have the goods and services that you want and want the good or service that you are willing to exchange.
Think of roads (which embody knowledge of direction and, thus, require of travelers far less knowledge than they would otherwise require of how to get from point A to point B). Think of paper road maps. Think of the sextant.
Indeed, think of the division of labor itself, which dramatically reduces the range of knowledge that a person must possess in order simply to survive. (Each of my grandfathers – both born and raised in the United States – knew how to raise, slaughter, and pluck chickens [and my paternal grandfather knew also how to milk cows and how to raise and slaughter hogs]; they each knew how to repair car engines; they each knew how to do household repairs that are an utter mystery to me and that fewer and fewer Americans know how to do. And I’m quite certain that the range of knowledge that my grandfathers’ grandfathers possessed and used routinely was even greater than was that of my grandfathers.)
As these latter examples (of my grandfathers) make especially clear, the distinction between technologies that replace muscle-power and technologies that replace brainpower is ultimately rather vague, anyway. At the end of the day, technology is useful if it allows human being to get more desirable outcomes with less human effort and sacrifice.
The Standard Model is a kind of periodic table of the elements for particle physics. But instead of listing the chemical elements, it lists the fundamental particles that make up the atoms that make up the chemical elements, along with any other particles that cannot be broken down into any smaller pieces.
The complete Standard Model took a long time to build. Physicist J.J. Thomson discovered the electron in 1897, and scientists at the Large Hadron Collider found the final piece of the puzzle, the Higgs boson, in 2012.
At its core, the book argues that changes in the economy also changes the political ideology in power; some personalities and value systems thrive in different occupations and industries. The growth of the knowledge economy has empowered a novelty-seeking personality that places an extreme faith in the power of information to solve the world’s problems.
A growing demographic of highly-skilled college-educated liberals will transform government’s role to be about directly investing in citizens, funding them to become as entrepreneurial, civic, and healthy as possible.